Hufflin Muffin (or the craziness of textbook data)

Sorry for the absence; it’s been a crazy month.

The main work keeping me away from here continues to be my research on school districts’ textbook adoptions. Recently, we had a nice breakthrough in Texas, where we discovered that the state keeps track of districts’ textbook purchases through disbursement and requisition reports. Great news! A couple FOIAs later and we were in business.

But like everything in the textbook research business, each step forward leads to two steps back.

The disbursement dataset we got from the state contains information on the publishers of the textbooks purchased by each Texas school district. Not the titles themselves, but the publishers. You’d think that a dataset like this might be standardized in some way. After all, there are only so many publishers out there. And if you’re going to the trouble of collecting the data as a state, you might want to have the data be easily usable (either by you or by researchers).

Well, you’d be wrong. Very, very wrong. My student, Shauna Campbell, has been cleaning up these data. Below I have copied the list of different entries in the “publishers” variable that we believe correspond to Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. There are 313 as of today’s counting, and we expect this number to go up. I’ve bolded some of our personal favorite spellings.

What is the point of collecting data like this if it’s going to be so messy as to be almost unusable?

·       Hooughton Mifflin
·       Houfhron Mifflin Hartcourt
·       Houfhton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houg
·       HOUG
·       hough
·       Hough Mifflin harcourt
·       Houghjton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghlin Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghlton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghnton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghon Mifflin
·       Houghon Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghrton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Hought Mifflin Hardcourt
·       Hought on Mifflin Hacourt
·       Houghtion Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghtlon Mifflin Harcourt
·       Hought-Mifflin
·       Houghtn Mifflin
·       Houghtn Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghtn Miffling Harcourt
·       Houghtno Mifflin Harcourt
·       HOUGHTO MIFFLIN HARCOURT
·       Houghto Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghtob Mifflin
·       HOUGHTOM MIFFLIN
·       Houghtom Mifflin
·       Houghtom Mifflin Harcourt
·       HOUGHTOM MIFFLIN HARCOURT
·       Houghtomn Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghton
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN
·       Houghton Mifflin
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghton MIfflin Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin Hardcort
·       Houghton & Mifflin
·       Houghton Harcourt Mifflin
·       Houghton Hiffin Harcourt
·       Houghton Hifflin
·       Houghton Hifflin Harcourt
·       Houghton Lifflin
·       Houghton McDougal
·       Houghton Mfflin Harcourt
·       Houghton Mfifflin
·       Houghton Miffen Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffflin Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffiin Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffilin
·       Houghton Miffilin Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffiln Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffin
·       Houghton Miffin Harcourt
·       HOUGHTON MIFFIN HARCOURT
·       Houghton Miffin Harcourt/Saxon Publis..
·       Houghton Mifflan
·       Houghton Mifflan Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflein Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffliin Harcourt
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIIN HARCOURT
·       Houghton Miffliln
·       Houghton Miffliln Harcouirt
·       Houghton Miffliln Harcourt
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIM
·       houghton mifflin
·       Houghton MIfflin
·       houghton Mifflin
·       Houghton mifflin
·       HOughton Mifflin
·       Houghton- Mifflin
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade 1
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade 2
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade 3
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade 4
·       Houghton MIfflin – Grade 4
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade 5
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade 6
·       Houghton MIfflin – Grade 6
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade 7
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade 8
·       Houghton Mifflin – Grade K
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT
·       Houghton Mifflin / Great Source
·       Houghton Mifflin and Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin Co
·       Houghton Mifflin Co.
·       Houghton Mifflin College Dic
·       Houghton Mifflin College Div
·       Houghton Mifflin Company
·       houghton mifflin company
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY
·       Houghton Mifflin from Follett
·       Houghton Mifflin Geneva, IL 60134
·       Houghton Mifflin Grade 8
·       Houghton Mifflin Grt Souce ED Grp
·       Houghton Mifflin Hacourt
·       Houghton Mifflin Haecourt/Holt McDougal
·       Houghton Mifflin Haracourt
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCCOURT
·       Houghton Mifflin Harccourt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcocurt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcort
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCORT
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcount
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcour
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourft
·       Houghton mifflin Harcourt
·       HOughton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin harcourt
·       Houghton mifflin harcourt
·       houghton Mifflin Harcourt
·       houghton Mifflin harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin HArcourt
·       HOUGHTON Mifflin Harcourt
·       houghton mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt – 9791300126
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt – 9791300173
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt – 9791300184
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt – Great Sou..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt — Saxon
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (Saxon)
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (Steck Vaug..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (TEXTBOOK W..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt / Holt McDo..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt / Rigby
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 9205 S. Par..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Achieve Pub..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Co
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Co.
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Depository
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Great Source
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt -Holt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt- Holt McDou..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt- Holt McDoug
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Holt McDoug..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Holt McDougal
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Mifflin Har..
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT PUBLISHING
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing ..
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT PUBLISHING ..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing ..
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT PUBLISHING CO
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Co
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Rigby
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Riverside
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Saxon
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt School Publ..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Texas
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt/ Holt McDou..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt/Great Source
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt/Holt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt/Holt McDougal
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt/Saxon Publi..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt-9791300126
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourte
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOURTE
·       Houghton Mifflin HarcourtH
·       Houghton Mifflin HarcourtMH
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourtq
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcourt-SHIPPING Co..
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcout
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARCOUT
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcpurt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcuort
·       Houghton Mifflin Harcurt
·       Houghton Mifflin Hardcourt
·       houghton mifflin hardcourt
·       houghton Mifflin Hardcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harocurt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harourt
·       Houghton Mifflin Harrcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin Hart Court
·       Houghton Mifflin Hartcourt
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN HARTCOURT
·       Houghton Mifflin Hartcourt Brace
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Physics
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Seventh Math
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Sixth
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Biology
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Eighth
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Eighth Math
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Fifth
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt First
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Fourth
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt IPC
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Kindergarten
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt McDougal
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Modern Chemistry
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Second
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Seventh
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Sixth Math
·       Houghton Mifflin Holt Third
·       Houghton Mifflin Publishing
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLIN PUBLISHING COMPANY
·       Houghton Mifflin Publishing Company
·       Houghton Mifflin School
·       Houghton Mifflin Science
·       Houghton Mifflin, Eds.
·       Houghton Mifflin, Indianapolis, IN 46..
·       Houghton Mifflin/Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin/Harcout
·       Houghton Mifflin/Holt McDougal
·       Houghton Mifflin/McDougal
·       Houghton Miffline
·       Houghton Miffline Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffline/Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffling Harcourt
·       Houghton MIffling Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin-Great Source
·       Houghton Mifflin-Great Source Rigby
·       Houghton MifflinHarcourt
·       HOUGHTON MIFFLINHARCOURT
·       Houghton MifflinHArcourt
·       houghton MifflinHarcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin-Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin-Holt McDougal
·       Houghton Mifflini Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflinn Harcourt
·       Houghton Mifflin-using overage
·       Houghton Miffllin
·       Houghton Miffllin Harcourt
·       Houghton Miffln
·       Houghton Miffln Harcourt
·       Houghton Miflfin Harcourt
·       Houghton Miflin
·       Houghton Miflin Harcourt
·       HOUGHTON MIFLIN HARCOURT
·       Houghton Mifllin Harcourt
·       Houghton Migglin Harcourt
·       Houghton Miifflin Harcourt
·       Houghton Millflin
·       Houghton Mimfflin Harcourt
·       Houghton Misslin
·       Houghton Mofflin
·       Houghton Mufflin
·       Houghton Mufflin Company
·       Houghton Mufflin Harcourt
·       Houghton, Mifflin Harcort
·       Houghton, Mifflin HArcort
·       Houghton, Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghton, Mifflin, and Harcourt
·       Houghton, Mifflin, Harcourt
·       Houghton-Miffliin Harcourt
·       HOUGHTON-MIFFLIN
·       Houghton-MIfflin
·       Houghton-Mifflin Co.
·       Houghton-Mifflin Company
·       Houghton-Mifflin Great Source Rigby
·       HoughtonMifflin Harcourt
·       Houghton-Mifflin Harcourt Senderos
·       Houghton-Mifflin/Great Source Rigby
·       Houghton-Mifflin/Harcourt
·       Houghton-Miffline Harcourt
·       HoughtonMifflinHarcourt
·       Houghton-Mifflin-Harcourt
·       Houghton-Mifflin-Harcourt;BMI;Lakesho..
·       HoughtonMifflinHarcourt-Holt McDougal
·       HoughtonMifflinHarcourt-Holt-McDougal
·       Houghton-Miflin
·       HOUGHTON-MUFFLIN
·       Houghtopn MIfflin Harcourt
·       HoughtotnMifflin
·       Houghtton Miffin Harcourt
·       Houghtton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houghyon Mifflin Harcourt
·       Hougnton Mifflin Haracourt
·       hougnton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Hougthon MIfflin
·       Hougthon Mifflin Harcourt
·       HOUGTHON MIFFLIN HARCOURT
·       Hougthon Mifflin harcourt
·       hougthon mifflin harcourt
·       Hougthon Mifflin Haroourt
·       Hougton
·       Hougton Mifflin
·       Hougton Mifflin Harcourrt
·       HOUGTON MIFFLIN HARCOURT
·       Hougton-Mifflin
·       Hougtton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houhgton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houhgton MIfflin Harcourt
·       Houhton Mifflin
·       Houhton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houhton Mifflin Harcourt Saxon
·       Houlghton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houlgthton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houlgton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Hourghton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Hourhton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houston Mifflin
·       Houtgton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houthgon Mifflin Harcourt
·       Houthton Mifflin Harcourt
·       houthton mifflin harcourt
·       Houton-Mifflin Company
·       Hpoughton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Hpughton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Hughton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Huoghton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Harcourt Mifflin Harcourt
·       Harcourt/Houghton Mifflin
·       Saxon (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt)
·       Saxon / Houghton Mifflin 9205 S. Park..
·       Saxon HMH
·       Saxon Houghton Mifflin
·       Saxon Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Saxon/Houghton Mifflin 9502 Sl Park C..
·       Saxon/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
·       Saxon-H.M.H. refer to D000030293
·       Saxon-Houghton Mifflin

This study is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1445654 and the Smith Richardson Foundation. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this study are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funders.

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